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Leghorn, Italy

Leghorn (Italian Livorno) is a port city on the Ligurian Sea on the western edge of Tuscany, Italy. An important area under the Medici in the Renaissance with many important landmarks from the sixteenth century, Leghorn was enlarged at the end of the eighteenth century by Leopold II (1747-1792), who also opened the city to foreign merchants. It was a free port from 1675 until 1860, when it became part of the Kingdom of Italy.

Late in the eighteenth century Leghorn became a favorite haunt of British expatriates. The novelist Tobias Smollett is buried in the Protestant cemetery in Leghorn. Percy Bysshe Shelley visited the city in 1819, and Byron stayed there in 1822. Its unique cosmopolitanism is captured in the entry for the city in the 4th edition of the Encyclpaedia Brittanica (1797).