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"Leghorn," from Enyclopaedia Britannica (1797), II

{775} LEGHORN, anciently called Liburnus Portus but by the modern Italians Livorno, a handsome town of Italy, in the duchy of Tuscany, and a free port, about 30 miles south west from Florence, in the territory of Pisa. The only defect of the harbour is its being too shallow for large ships. Cosmo I. had this town in exchange for Sarzana, from the Genoese; and it is the only sea-port in the duchy. It was then but a mean unhealthy place; but is now very handsome, and well-built, with broad, straight, parallel streets. It is also well fortified; but wants good water, which must be brought from Pisa, 14 miles distant. It is about 2 miles in circuit, and the general form of it is square. Part of it has the convenience of canals; one of which is 5 miles in length, and, joining the Arno, merchandise and passengers are thus conveyed to Pisa. The port, consisting of two havens, one for the duke's galleys, and the other for merchant ships, is surrounded with a double mole, above a mile and a half in length, and defended, together with the town, by a good citadel and 12 forts. Roman Catholics, Jews, Greeks, Armenians, Mahometans, and even the English factory, are indulged in the public exercise of their religion; but other Protestants must be satisfied with the private. The trade carried on here is very great, and most of it passes through the hands of the Jews. Though only two piastres, or scudi, are paid for every bale, {776} great or small, imported or exported, yet the duties on all provisions and commodities brought from the continent to the town are very heavy. The number of the inhabitants is said to be about 45,000; and one third of these are Jews, who live in a particular quarter, but without any mark of distinction, and have a fine synagogue. They have engrossed the coral manufactory, have a considerable trade, and possess the chief riches of the place. The garrison consists of 2000 men. The walks on the ramparts are very agreeable. There is good anchorage in the road; but ships riding there are much exposed to the weather and the Barbary corsairs. The number of English families in Leghorn are about 36; they are much favoured by the government, and carry on a good trade. The power of the inquisition is limited to ecclesiastical matters and Roman Catholics. There are a great many Turkish slaves here, brought in by the duke's galleys, who are often sent out on a cruize against the corsairs of Barbary. The lighthouse stands on a rock in the sea; near which is the Lazaretto, where quarantine is performed. Another source, from which the duke draws a great revenue, is the monopoly of brandy, tobacco, and salt; but that, with the heavy duties, makes provisions dear. The Turks, who are not slaves, live in a particular quarter, near that of the Jews. The common prostitutes also have a particular place assigned to them, out of which they must not be seen, without leave from the commissary. The number of the rowers in the galleys, whether Turkish slaves, criminals, or volunteers, are about 2000. In the area before the darsena or inner harbour, is a fine statue of Duke Ferdinand, with four Turkish slaves, in bronze, chained to the pedestal. The ducal palace is one of the finest structures in the town, and the ordinary residence of the governor. Leghorn is the see of a bishop, and has a noble cathedral; but the other churches are not remarkable. E. Long. 11.0. N. Lat. 43.30.