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his queen, and son

The syntax is somewhat confusing. Falkland and Gower/Goring are mentioned as companions to King Charles I, whose queen was Henrietta Maria (1609-69) -- actually Henriette-Marie, daughter of Henry IV of France and Marie de Medici, by birth and practice a Roman Catholic. The son mentioned here probably would be Charles II (1630-85; restored after the Commonwealth as king of Great Britain and Ireland, 1660-85); but the term could as easily apply to his slightly younger brother James II (1633-1701), who became king after the death of Charles II but was deposed three years later, in 1688, in what became known as the Bloodless Revolution.