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Cumberland, England

Cumberland, England, former county in the the Lake District in the northwest of England.

Cumberland, on the border between England and Scotland, saw many battles through the Middle Ages, ending only with the union of the crowns in 1603. Its political position between the two countries presented new problems after the Jacobite rebellions of 1715 and 1745, in which many of Cumberland's inhabitants supported the Stuart pretenders. After mid-century, however, the infrastructure of Cumberland was considerably improved -- new roads, increased trade -- and became a fashionable tourist destination for its striking scenery.

In 1974, Cumberland was merged with the neighboring county of Westmorland to form Cumbria.