## Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, 1646-1716, German
philosopher and mathematician.
Leibniz, a central figure in the European Enlightenment, is known
for several works: his *Theodicy* (1710), for which he was
often accused (including by Voltaire)
of advocating a mindless optimism in this, the "best of all
possible worlds"; and his *Monadology* (1714), a theory of
substance which grounded matter in entities he called "monads."
He was a critic of John Locke's notion
of the mind as a *tabula rasa*. Leibniz was also a
prominent mathematician, and developed calculus independently of
Sir Isaac Newton, for which he was
accused of plagiary by the Royal
Society -- a charge of which modern critics have acquitted
him.

Wollstonecraft quotes from the Preface to his *Theodicy*.